In science, a reference or bibliographic reference is information provided in a footnote or bibliography of a written work, such as a book, article, essay, report, speech, or other type of text, indicating the written work of another person used in the creation of that text. A bibliographic reference usually contains the author`s full name, the title of his or her work, and the year of publication. The main purpose of references is to allow readers to examine the sources of a text to verify its validity or to learn more about the subject. These items are often listed at the end of an article in a section titled References or Bibliography. There was a long list of references at the end of the document. Journaling allows an individual to use references for a personal organization, whether or not someone else understands the reference systems used. However, scientists have studied reference methods because of their key role in communication and collaboration between different people, and also because of the misunderstandings that can arise. The modern scientific study of bibliographic references has developed since the 19th century. [6] There are frequent, albeit general, references to forces greater than oneself. In semantics, reference is generally understood as the relationships between nouns or pronouns and the objects named by them. Therefore, the word « John » refers to the person of John.

The word « it » refers to a previously specified object. The object referred to is called the referent of the word. [3] Sometimes the word-object relationship is referred to as « denotation »; The word refers to the object. The inverse relationship, the relationship of the object to the word, is called « exemplification »; The object illustrates what the word means. In parsing, when a word refers to a previous word, the previous word is called the antecedent. In computer science, references are types of data that reference an object elsewhere in memory and are used to create various data structures, such as linked lists. In general, a reference is a value that allows a program to directly access the particular data element. Most programming languages support some form of reference.

For more information about the specific reference type used in C++, see Reference (C++). His writing is full of obscure literary references. This includes navigating influencers who are trying to sell them products and teaching them how to look for references when information is provided to them. When writing a report for the school, you probably rely on certain references or sources for information. Or, if you`re applying for a job, you can rely on a referral from a former boss to help you get the job. In patent law, a reference is a document that can be used to represent the state of the art at a given point in time and can therefore make a claimed invention obvious or anticipated. Examples of references include patents from any country, journal articles, doctoral theses indexed and therefore accessible to those interested in information on the subject, and to some extent Internet material that is also accessible. Good references are sometimes necessary to get a job or do a job. A reference is someone you can count on to put a good word for you when applying for a job.

Or a reference could be an external source that you use in a research paper. Remember: if you are referring to external work, be sure to mention it in your bibliography or « reference list » so as not to be accused of plagiarism. Give credit where it`s due. Illumina`s sequencers read the code of each sample and compare each letter to a reference sequence to look for significant changes. It refers to the « black community », the « ethics of black values » and adherence to the « black value system ». Another example of reference are samples of various musical works that are incorporated into a short story. References can take many forms, including: a thought, an audible sensory perception (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory or tactile, an emotional state, a relationship to others[1], a space-time coordinate, symbolic or alphanumeric, a physical object, or a projection of energy. In some cases, methods are used that intentionally hide the reference from certain observers, as in cryptography. [ref. needed] These Eskimos loved hang gliding, for its own good, without any reference to utility! These sample phrases are automatically selected from various online information sources to reflect the current use of the word « reference ».

The views expressed in the examples do not represent the views of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us your feedback. The concept of the linguistic sign itself is the combination of content and expression, the former of which may refer to entities in the world or to more abstract concepts, such as thoughts. Some parts of language exist only to express a reference, namely anaphoras such as pronouns. The subset of reflexives expresses the co-reference of two participants in a sentence. These can be the agent (actor) and the patient (acted), as in « The man washed », the theme and the recipient, as in « I showed myself Mary » or various other possible combinations. She did not mention, for example, that they could often be alone now. He politely didn`t mention my messy looks.

The verb to refer (to) and its derivatives may have the meaning of « connect to » or « bind to », as in the reference senses described in this article. Another meaning is « consult »; This is reflected in phrases such as reference book, reference switch, job reference, etc. You never know when you`ll need it for reference or to show it to someone. In 2011, LGBT media company Queerty challenged the app for allegedly removing accounts linked to being trans. According to perceptual control theory (PCT), a reference condition is the state in which the output of a control system tends to change a controlled quantity. The main thesis is: « All behavior is always based on the control of certain quantities against specific reference conditions. » [5] Please provide your customer reference number if you wish to contact us. Take the memories of the learned members of the professions – these are usually just reference memories. References appear in many areas of human activity and knowledge, and the term takes on nuances of meaning specific to the contexts in which it is used. Some of these are described in the following sections.

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